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Ebook Role of Microfinance Tools in Disaster Risk Reduction: A Study in India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka

Bangladesh is largely a flat deltaic country formed by the confluence of great river systems of the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Meghna. These river systems annually drain a vast basin about 12 times its own size. Since the water of the above three major river systems passes through Bangladesh (only 7.5 percent of total catchment area) to the Bay of Bengal, the country becomes the worst victim of excessive rainfall in the upper catchment area outside its territory. Due to the low gradient of the rivers of Bangladesh and a flat terrain, every year, floods inundate a substantial part of the country and causes destruction to lives and properties. But at times it turns into catastrophic proportion.

Apart from this, hilly regions experiences flash flood after heavy rainfall and due to frequent depressions in the Bay, Bangladesh experiences regular threats of cyclonic storms, often catastrophic. From early July 1998, Bangladesh began to experience the worst flood of the century, and thereafter it experienced floods in 2004 and twin floods in a season in 2007 including catastrophic cyclonic storm surge SIDR in the same year. Bangladesh witnessed severe floods in 1954/55, 1971, 1974, 1987 and 1988 when one-fourth to half of the country went under water causing immense damage to lives and properties.

The flood in 1988 was termed as catastrophic when 52 percent of the country’s land was inundated. In that flood 52 districts and 30 million people were affected. However, the scale and duration of the recent flood of 1998 has surpassed all past experiences in recorded history. Almost two-thirds of the country went under water on an average of 8 to 9 weeks; 55 of the total 64 districts (32 in the riverine areas of Jamuna, Brahmaputra, Padma and Meghna), were severely affected. A total of 33 million people were marooned of which 18 million needed emergency food and health services.

The prolonged and devastating flood caused huge damage to crops, property and livelihood. Houses were inundated, some being washed away by the current of the surging water. The roads and highways and related infrastructure went under water, thus disrupting the communication lifelines of the country. There was immense damage to dams and culverts. At the peak of the disaster, there were few places where people could find a dry place for shelter as all the traditional places where people usually take shelter during flood such as schools, mosques, community centres were submerged. They had to live with their cattle and poultry under the same roof. The marooned people in millions suffered from scarcity of safe drinking water and were without any sensible means of sanitation.


Glossary and Abbreviations
1. Introduction

    1.1 Policies and Practices of Disaster Risk Reduction of the Public Sector
    1.1.1 Institutional Arrangements
    1.1.2 Susceptibility Assessment
    1.1.3 Planning Process
    1.1.4 The Actors
    1.1.5 Information Network
    1.1.6 Emergency Response Modalities
    1.1.7 Issues, Gaps and Priorities
    1.2 Policies and Practices of Disaster Risk Reduction of the Private Sector
    1.2.1 Strategic Focus
    1.2.2 Disaster Mitigation Plans of MFIs
    1.2.3 Policies and Practices of Disaster Responses of MFIs
    1.2.4 Microfinance for Disaster Risk Reduction
    1.2.5 Microfinance Institutions’ Response to disasters
    1.2.6 Disaster Mitigation Products from MFIs
    1.2.7 Microfinance Product from MFIs
    1.2.8 MFIs’ Participation in Flood/SIDR Relief and Mitigation
    1.2.9 Palli Karma Shahayak Foundation (PKSF)’s Role
    1.2.10 Up and Downsides of MFIs’ Responses
    1.2.11 New Horizon

2. The Study

    2.1 Background and Rationale of the Study
    2.2 Objectives of the Study
    2.3 Implementation structure of the study
    2.4 Methodology of the Study
    2.4.1 Selection of the study areas
    2.4.2 Sampling design and size
    2.4.3 Data collection
    2.4.4 Development of instruments, training, data processing and analysis
    2.5 Limitations of the Study

3. Findings

    3.1 Insurance Coverage
    3.1.1 Insurance coverage of eligible persons before and after disaster
    3.1.2 Source of support for insurance coverage
    3.1.3 Status of continuity in insurance schemes
    3.2 Income generating assets
    3.3 Household assets
    3.4 Risk related to life
    3.4.1 Death of persons
    3.4.2 Disability of persons
    3.4.3 Physical trauma or illness due to disaster
    3.4.4 Additional members in work
    3.4.5 Change in economic activity
    3.4.6 Migration
    3.4.7 Employment and income lost
    3.5 Access to goods
    3.5.1 Status of availability of goods
    3.5.2 Average number of days of inadequacy
    3.5.3 Changes in prices
    3.5.4 Percentage of households that managed access to goods from
    3.6 Details related to shelter
    3.7 Housing at pre and post disaster situation
    3.8 Access to services
    3.9 Inadequate days for services
    3.10 Coping mechanism
    3.11 Sources of support
    3.12 Credit provision
    3.12.1 Credit provision at the time or after disaster
    3.12.2 Loan purposes at the time of disaster
    3.12.3 Loan purposes as on date
    3.12.4 Repayment of the loan at the time of disaster
    3.12.5 Repayment of the loan as on date
    3.12.6 Change in repayment terms at the time of disaster
    3.12.7 Change in repayment terms as on date

4. Conclusion and recommendations
5. References
6. List of interviews
7. Attachments

    7.1 Background Paper
    7.2 Schedule of Survey
    7.3 FGD Guidelines

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