Crystallization is a thermal separation, and therefore a purification process that yields a
solid product from a melt, from a solution or from a vapour. As for all thermalseparations, nonequilibrium conditions are required as a driving force for the process. Here, evaporation of solvent or temperature reduction (cooling) are the most frequent means employed to establish the required non-equilibrium conditions. Pressure can, in principle, also be used to enforce the non-equilibrium state necessary for a phase change.
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