First coined by Kaufman in 1981, laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) has also been recognized under other aliases including extraesophageal reflux, reflux laryngitis, and posterior laryngitis. LPR has been postulated to play a role in up to 50% of laryngeal complaints that present in an otolaryngological practice.
Each year, millions of people in the United States are affected by serious and sometimes life-threatening eating disorders; the two most common being anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. (Hoffman 1) Over 90 percent of those afflicted with the disorders are young women. Approximately 1 percent of adolescent girls develop anorexia nervosa, a dangerous condition in which they can literally starve themselves to death while another two to three percent of young women develop bulimia nervosa, a destructive pattern of excessive overeating followed by vomiting or other “purging” behaviors. These disorders have reached epidemic proportions.
Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma, SSc) is an autoimmune disease that targets small and medium-sized arteries and arterioles in the involved tissues, resulting in a fibrotic vasculopathy and tissue fibrosis. Several prominent nail and periungual changes are apparent in scleroderma. Examination of the nail fold capillaries can reveal the nature and extent of microvascular pathology in patients with collagen vascular disease and Raynaud’s phenomenon. Among the complications stemming from Raynaud’s phenomenon can be painful ischemic digital ulcers.
Otitis media is one of the most common illnesses for which preschool-age children visit their pediatrician, accounting for more than US $3 billion in expenditures annually.1,2 Up to 80% of children under the age of six will experience at least one ear infection. 3 Children with acute otitis media typically present with otalgia or pulling of the ears, irritability, and fever, and it is often associated with a viral upper respiratory infection.
The word anxiety comes from the latin word anxieta which means troubled in the mind about some uncertain event, and has a Greek root anxo which means to squeeze, strangle or press tight. Anxiety disorders are a group of disorders with symptomatology that are different from each other, yet show the same basic emotion of anxiety as its predominant symptom.
The goal of planning a diet for an individual is to achieve a low probability of inadequacy while not exceeding the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for each nutrient. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Adequate Intake (AI) is used as the target nutrient intake for individuals, and planners should realize that there is no recognized benefit of usual intakes in excess of these levels. Food-based nutrition education tools are regularly used to help an individual plan a healthy diet.
Do you feel challenged to serve your family healthy meals each day? Nutritious food doesn’t have to be bland or take a long time to prepare. You can prepare healthy recipes that taste great and that your children will love. Keep the Beat™ Recipes: Deliciously Healthy Family Meals dishes up all that and more. With kid tested recipes, such as Southwestern Beef Roll-Ups, Hawaiian Huli Huli Chicken, and Mexican Lasagna, these meals are sure to be winners on your table.
Currently, the only treatment for Celiac Disease (CD) is strict adherence to a gluten-free (GF) diet. Individuals on a GF diet quickly become adept at scrutinizing foods for hidden gluten. With dietary adherence, the damaging effect of gluten on the intestines is halted. Intestinal healing is followed by improved nutrient absorption and frequently weight gain. Once gastrointestinal function is normalized, the person with CD should be evaluated for risks that plague the population in general.
Sleep is one of our most basic needs. We all know that good sleep is needed after the activities of the day to feel refreshed, restored and able to face the next day’s challenges satisfactorily. Other important functions occur during sleep including processing of information (“sleeping on the problem”) and consolidating memory. However exactly how the brain accomplishes this during sleep remains unclear.
Treatment options for prostate cancer are more effective than ever before. Yet, for many men, the diagnosis and treatment of cancer brings to their attention the need to change their diet and exercise behaviors. While the primary focus of the prostate cancer survivor is to live a life free of cancer, more men are beginning to realize that a healthy diet and regular exercise can be an important step toward preventing other diseases that commonly occur with aging, including heart disease and diabetes. Exciting new data suggest that this same approach may also slow prostate cancer growth. This guide takes the best published evidence from population studies, basic science, and limited human studies, and puts them together in ways that make practical sense — with the overall goal of helping you achieve “thrivership” not just survivorship.
This briefing presents the current evidence from selected good quality systematic reviews and meta-analyses published since 1996. The review will be updated regularly as new evidence becomes available and can be accessed via hda.nhs.uk/evidence. It aims to identify diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions shown to be effective in the management of obesity and overweight, and is intended to inform policy and decision makers, NHS providers, public health physicians and other public health practitioners in the widest sense.
This study investigated changes in body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), appetite, and mood in 128 obese women who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment conditions: diet alone, diet plus aerobic training, diet plus strength training, or diet combined with aerobic and strength training (i.e., combined training). All women received the same 48-week group behavioral program and were prescribed the same diet. Exercising participants were provided 3 supervised exercise sessions per week for the first 28 weeks and 2 sessions weekly thereafter. Participants across the 4 conditions achieved a mean weight loss of 16.5 ± 6.8 kg at Week 24, which decreased to 15.1 ± 8.4 kg at Week 48.
The Federal Institute for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine (BgVV) is highly concerned about the development on the market for food supplements or dietary supplements as well as to the trend towards the uncontrolled fortification of processed foods for general consumption2 with micronutrients and non-nutrients.
Foot ulcerations, infections, and Charcot neuropathic osteoarthropathy are three serious foot complications of diabetes mellitus that can too frequently lead to gangrene and lower limb amputation. Consequently, foot disorders are one of the leading causes of hospitalization for persons with diabetes and can account for expenditures in the billions of dollars annually in the U.S. alone.
Everyone agrees that business managers must understand finance and marketing. But is it necessary for them to study ethics? Managers who answer in the negative generally base their thinking on one of three rationales. They may simply say that they have no reason to be ethical.
One of the most influential ideas in the field of business ethics has been the suggestion that ethical conduct in a business context should be analyzed in terms of a set of fiduciary obligations toward various “stakeholder” groups. Moral problems, according to this view, involve reconciling such obligations in cases where stakeholder groups have conflicting interests.
When you buy a franchise, you often can sell goods and services that have instant name recognition, and get training and support that can help you succeed. But purchasing a franchise is like every other investment: there’s no guarantee of success. The Federal Trade Commission, the nation’s consumer protection agency, has prepared this booklet to explain how to shop for a franchise opportunity, the obligations of a franchise owner, and questions to ask before you invest.
Vestibular sensation is mediated by two relatively simple reflexes. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) ensures optimal visual processing during head motion by stabilizing the line of sight, also called gaze. The vestibulospinal reflexes (VSR) facilitate changes in antigravity muscles in order to help keep the head and body upright. There are two sensors within the vestibular labyrinth that respond to acceleration and thereby transduce the motion and the position of the head into peripheral and ultimately central biological signals.
For many years it has been known that the height of the mother is closely related to birth weight and pregnancy outcome, such as perinatal mortality and stunting due to chronic malnutrition during childhood. Mothers who enter pregnancy with sound reproductive physiology, and who have not suffered ill health or nutritional deprivation in childhood will have larger and healthier infants than mothers who do not have such advantages. Several studies provide evidence for the relationship between adult size reproductive efficiency and socio economic status. In general, the baby of a short woman is lighter and has less vitality and has lower survival than that of a tall woman.
Infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become a leading cause of scarring of the liver (i.e., fibrosis) and cirrhosis in the United States. HCV-related cirrhosis (with its associated complications, such as liver cancer) is a major cause of death, although it develops slowly and occurs only in approximately one-third of HCV-infected patients. Alcohol can exacerbate HCV infection and the associated liver damage by causing oxidative stress and promoting fibrosis, thereby accelerating disease progression to cirrhosis.
You may be wondering why you feel so tired and cannot do many of the things you want to do, or used to do. You may also be wondering if there is anything you can do to feel better, be more productive, and regain your energy. Your healthcare team may have told you that you have anemia, which may explain, in part, why you feel so tired and lack the energy necessary to perform your daily activities. Anemia and fatigue can be caused by multiple myeloma itself or by the treatment for the disease.
As a diabetes educator, I have heard this statement from many hundreds of people. Self monitoring of blood glucose (blood sugar) is a cornerstone of modern diabetes care. And right now, we still don't have any way to check blood glucose without using a drop of blood. So it's certainly true, if you check your blood glucose regularly. it is possible to make your fingertips really sore. And, of course, if your fingers are already sore, you are not going to want to poke them again to get one more drop of blood for one more check of your blood glucose.
Skin Itching is a common problem in acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine clinic. Itches can be localized (limited to one area of the body) or generalized (in which itching occurs all over the body or in several different areas). Generalized itch, for obvious reasons, is more difficult to treat by western medication, but very effective with acupuncture and herbal treatment. Itches can also occur with or without skin lesions (e.g., bumps or blisters). Skin itching might be caused by dermatitis, eczema, acne, scabies, psoriasis, hay weaves, urticaria.
A polyherbal formulation, Purim, which has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties and is a chealeating agent for various toxins in the blood, has been advocated to treat various skin disorders. Purim therapy was effective in treating various types of dermatitis in this open clinical trial. Fifty two patients were treated with Purim for 1 month, out of which forty nine completed the study. These patients had various diseases such as lichen planus, psoriasis, chronic lichen simplex, chronic eczema, contact dermatitis, etc.
A sleep disorder disrupts and disturbs your overall quality of life. It can affect a child, teen, single adult, parent or senior citizen. More than 70 million people in the U.S. have a sleep disorder. Most of those who have one are completely unaware of it. Many of those who are aware of it never choose to seek the help that they need.
Since diabetes mellitus affects every organic system, it affects gastrointestinal tract as well. The precise extent of digestive disorders associated with diabetes mellitus is unknown. Few mechanisms may lead to these manifestations including autonomic neuropathy, diabetic microangiopathy, poor glycemic regulation, altered production of glucagon and insulin, and increased susceptibility to gastrointestinal infections. Esophageal disorders like reduced amplitude of esophageal contractions, reduced lower esophageal sphincter pressure, and abnormal acid reflux occur commonly in patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes is included in a certain number of stomach disorders and is considered responsible for undefined dyspeptic symptoms.
This paper shows how changes in the volatility of the real interest rate at which emerging economies borrow have a substantial effect on real variables like output, consumption, investment, and hours worked. These effects appear even when the level of the real interest rate itself remains constant. We argue that, consequently, the time-varying volatility of real interest rates is an important force behind the distinctive size and pattern of business cycle fluctuations of emerging economies.
The extent and dynamics of capital market synchronization represents a vital research area as it is important for equity portfolio selection (Erb et al., 1994), understanding the “home country bias” phenomenon (Lewis, 1999) and understanding processes underlying comovements between financial and real economies (Brooks et al., 2003), among other issues. Capital market synchronization, along with that of the real economy, is also closely related to the ongoing process of European integration that has been witnessed by stronger real economic linkages and the convergence between old and new European Union (EU) member states (Fidrmuc and Korhonen, 2006).
The Federal Reserve, through its monetary policy, controls federal funds rate by making changes reserve balances available to the banking system. Thus change in monetary policy most directly influences day to day operations of banks. In a recent study Bernanke and Kuttner (2005) examine monetary policy effect on equity prices. They show that equity market reaction comes from the unanticipated component of the monetary policy action. Bernanke and Kuttner (2005) argue that policy makers try to modify economic behavior by affecting the asset prices.
The Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT) of Ross (1976, 1977), and extensions of that theory, constitute an important branch of asset pricing theory and one of the primary alternatives to the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). In this chapter we survey the theoretical underpinnings, econometric testing, and applications of the APT. We aim for variety in viewpoint without attempting to be all-inclusive. Where necessary, we refer the reader to the primary literature for more complete treatments of the various research areas we discuss.
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