This book is an introduction and guide to identifying, dating and judging the authenticity, or lack thereof, of photographs from the 1800s to today. While a short book hardly intends to make the beginner into a museum curator or the next Sotheby‘s expert, it covers many of the basics and essentials to forming wise opinions.
This guide is a supplement to your personal experience and springboard to your continuing education. This experience and education includes handling and looking at a variety ofphotographs, reading books and articles and asking lots of questions of dealers, experts and fellow collectors. With time, the collector gains a feel for age, rarity, originality and authenticity.
When whale photo-identification studies first began in the 1960s and 1970s, researchers used either 35mm slide film or high resolution black and white film to document individual whales. Some photo-ID programs evaluated negatives magnified with dissecting microscope to look for matches and other programs made custom black and white prints in a photo darkroom, carefully enlarging, rotating and adjusting each image to bring out all the fine detail on the negative.
Today's digital photography equivalent of a film negative is the RAW format image file. RAW images are the most accurate photo record that your camera can produce. Because RAW files can’t be modified, they are akin to a negative and must be processed to use them effectively (see Appendix I for a description of some common image file types).
This thesis is about emerging changes in photography and imaging related to digitization and how we might approach and understand them, particularly in terms of their impact upon how narratives are constructed. By focusing on the accounts of Queen’s University students this thesis examines the new ways of making, storing, distributing, and viewing images that have emerged with digital photography. Additionally, it looks at the cultural conventions of photography (particularly in relation to the documenting and organization of memory) that remain intact and have important implications for the reception of use of new digital technologies and how these are used to construct narratives.
This thesis also looks at the digitization of photography in relation to broader theoretical debates about the dynamics and shifts associated with modernity, postmodernity and ‘global information culture’. Contemporary society is often seen as more capitalist, and in many ways, this is an era of increasing uncertainty, fluidity, and fragmentation. This thesis examines the affinity between the supposed ‘death of narrative’ in social theory and the ‘death of photography’ in terms of how they relate to the ordinary practices of amateur digital photographers.
In recent years, growing system complexity and shrink-ing time-to-market requirements have resulted in a strong need for new design methods and tools. In order to keep pace with the increased system complexity, designers must work at a higher level of abstraction . Depending on the abstraction level (namely, the number of details used to model the system) different concerns can be addressed and solved. At each step of the design process, the key to cope with complexity is to model the systems, only with the minimum number of details needed. Abstraction hides complexity and accelerates design process. Tools support is needed throughout all steps of the design flow, from the formal specification of the system to its physical implementation.
Traditionally, the design of embedded systems has been carried out by decomposing and allocating the system to hardware and software, then allowing separate hardware and software design teams to design their respective parts, and finally integrating hardware and software. This separation of design tasks leads to the potential for initial design mistakes to be carried until the integration phase, where they are much more difficult and costly to correct. This issue has been widely addressed by development of high level languages, that describe both hardware and software, thus keeping their design flow tightly coupled.
The overlapping communication of color according to ICC-Standard is todays foundation for color management in a media production environment. Applied color management will bring predictability and consequently security along into the color workflow, from data input to conversion and output processing.
What is the fundamental challenge of color management within the boundaries of physics:
- make the scan look like the original on the monitor.
- make the print look like the original on the monitor.
- make the print of a scan, without much examination on the monitor, look very similar to the original.
- generate verification for images to look similar on different machines and monitors.
Computational photography combines plentiful computing, digital sensors, modern optics, actuators, probes and smart lights to escape the limitations of traditional film cameras and enables novel imaging applications. Unbounded dynamic range, variable focus, resolution, and depth of field, hints about shape, reflectance, and lighting, and new interactive forms of photos that are partly snapshots and partly videos are just some of the new applications found in Computational Photography. The computational techniques encompass methods from modification of imaging parameters during capture to sophisticated reconstructions from indirect measurements. We provide a practical guide to topics in image capture and manipulation methods for generating compelling pictures for computer graphics and for extracting scene properties for computer vision, with several examples.
Many ideas in computational photography are still relatively new to digital artists and programmers and there is no up-to-date reference text. A larger problem is that a multi-disciplinary field that combines ideas from computational methods and modern digital photography involves a steep learning curve. For example, photographers are not always familiar with advanced algorithms now emerging to capture high dynamic range images, but image processing researchers face difficulty in understanding the capture and noise issues in digital cameras. These topics, however, can be easily learned without extensive background. The goal of this STAR is to present both aspects in a compact form.
It’s March 2005 and Martha Stewart is getting out of jail. As celebrities’ personal lives have become media worthy, Newsweek publishes her coming out from behind a red curtain on the cover. From this curtain, which represents her time in a minimum?security prison for insider trading, emerges the new trimmer, healthier looking Martha. This new trimmer body represents the overall reformation that Stewart experienced behind bars. There is a catch. Yes, that is Martha Stewart’s head, but the body belongs to a model. This is in fact a photo?illustration. A new term created for the age of digital technology, a photo illustration is one that is altered to the point that the editors deem it is no longer ethical to consider it a photograph. Yet, in order to find out that this image is in fact a photo?illustration, and not a photograph, one has to flip to the third page and read the fine print. This photo is a compilation of things that do exist, to form a person who never existed in this form, and it looks entirely believable. In the age of digital media this image is not the exception to the norm—it is the norm. We often assume that photographs do not need interpretation, especially in a journalistic context where it is assumed that they record the reality the journalist is attempting to convey. The inference of reality, however, is not always justified.
Photography is a language. 1 A part of our visual culture, photographs are used across society for diverse purposes ranging from personal remembrances to an international means of communication. Photos are used in scrapbooks and greeting cards, as backgrounds on computer desktops and decorations in our homes. Photographs 1 This thesis follows the style and format of History of Photography. surround us. From the moment one wakes up, to the moment one goes to sleep, the twenty?first century is defined by photographic images.
Many of use who grew up in earlier times have fond memories of Christmas morning when we were children. Just as we youngsters were opening our treasures Santa left; a parent would enter the room and turn on the movie camera topped with bright blinding lights. In the past it was quite an ordeal to take home movies. But, despite the blinding light, we would dutiful parade in front of the camera with our new treasures.
Now, our parents were not experts in movie camera technology and certainly none of us were trained on how to act for filmmaking. However, we managed to create some wonderful and memorable documents not only of our family, but of an era in human history. In watching those home movies over the years, the parental genius as a cinematographer became more obvious.
There is little doubt that the use of digital images in learning, teaching and research projects is growing. Typical uses include: supporting lectures and other presentations; creating Web-based instruction and creating digital image archives. Another aspect of digital images is that they can be delivered on a variety of supports: PowerPoint, Web, image database, CD-ROM, and print.
It is therefore important to be familiar with image digitisation processes in order to obtain images that will be ‘fit for purpose’. This document shows you how to apply image enhancement techniques using Adobe Photoshop CS2.
Photography that takes advantage of the superiority of large-aperture lenses Communication between the photographer and the model in portrait photography is very important. For this reason among others, lenses between 50mm and 135mm are often used, in order to maintain a certain distance from the model. The standard zoom lenses which are often sold together with camera bodies cover this focal length range, and are therefore generally suitable for this type of photography. Sometimes, however, it is necessary in portrait photography to use a large-aperture lens with a larger maximum aperture than is offered with such zoom lenses. It goes without saying that getting the most out of the lenses you already have is a good thing, but the powerful effect afforded by a large-aperture lens is the ne plus ultra of interchangeable lenses in SLR photography.
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