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Health Ebooks

Healthy Sleep And Sleep Disorders

Sleep is one of our most basic needs. We all know that good sleep is needed after the activities of the day to feel refreshed, restored and able to face the next day’s challenges satisfactorily. Other important functions occur during sleep including processing of information (“sleeping on the problem”) and consolidating memory. However exactly how the brain accomplishes this during sleep remains unclear.

Nutrition, Exercise and Prostate Cancer

Treatment options for prostate cancer are more effective than ever before. Yet, for many men, the diagnosis and treatment of cancer brings to their attention the need to change their diet and exercise behaviors. While the primary focus of the prostate cancer survivor is to live a life free of cancer, more men are beginning to realize that a healthy diet and regular exercise can be an important step toward preventing other diseases that commonly occur with aging, including heart disease and diabetes. Exciting new data suggest that this same approach may also slow prostate cancer growth. This guide takes the best published evidence from population studies, basic science, and limited human studies, and puts them together in ways that make practical sense — with the overall goal of helping you achieve “thrivership” not just survivorship.

The Management of Obesity and Overweight

This briefing presents the current evidence from selected good quality systematic reviews and meta-analyses published since 1996. The review will be updated regularly as new evidence becomes available and can be accessed via It aims to identify diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions shown to be effective in the management of obesity and overweight, and is intended to inform policy and decision makers, NHS providers, public health physicians and other public health practitioners in the widest sense.

Exercise in the Treatment of Obesity

This study investigated changes in body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), appetite, and mood in 128 obese women who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment conditions: diet alone, diet plus aerobic training, diet plus strength training, or diet combined with aerobic and strength training (i.e., combined training). All women received the same 48-week group behavioral program and were prescribed the same diet. Exercising participants were provided 3 supervised exercise sessions per week for the first 28 weeks and 2 sessions weekly thereafter. Participants across the 4 conditions achieved a mean weight loss of 16.5 ± 6.8 kg at Week 24, which decreased to 15.1 ± 8.4 kg at Week 48.

Toxicological and Nutritional Aspects of the Use of Minerals and Vitamins in Foods

The Federal Institute for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine (BgVV) is highly concerned about the development on the market for food supplements or dietary supplements as well as to the trend towards the uncontrolled fortification of processed foods for general consumption2 with micronutrients and non-nutrients.

Diabetic Foot Disorders

Foot ulcerations, infections, and Charcot neuropathic osteoarthropathy are three serious foot complications of diabetes mellitus that can too frequently lead to gangrene and lower limb amputation. Consequently, foot disorders are one of the leading causes of hospitalization for persons with diabetes and can account for expenditures in the billions of dollars annually in the U.S. alone.

Vertigo and Vestibular Disorders

Vestibular sensation is mediated by two relatively simple reflexes. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) ensures optimal visual processing during head motion by stabilizing the line of sight, also called gaze. The vestibulospinal reflexes (VSR) facilitate changes in antigravity muscles in order to help keep the head and body upright. There are two sensors within the vestibular labyrinth that respond to acceleration and thereby transduce the motion and the position of the head into peripheral and ultimately central biological signals.

Maternal Nutrition

For many years it has been known that the height of the mother is closely related to birth weight and pregnancy outcome, such as perinatal mortality and stunting due to chronic malnutrition during childhood. Mothers who enter pregnancy with sound reproductive physiology, and who have not suffered ill health or nutritional deprivation in childhood will have larger and healthier infants than mothers who do not have such advantages. Several studies provide evidence for the relationship between adult size reproductive efficiency and socio economic status. In general, the baby of a short woman is lighter and has less vitality and has lower survival than that of a tall woman.

Alcohol and Hepatitis C

Infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become a leading cause of scarring of the liver (i.e., fibrosis) and cirrhosis in the United States. HCV-related cirrhosis (with its associated complications, such as liver cancer) is a major cause of death, although it develops slowly and occurs only in approximately one-third of HCV-infected patients. Alcohol can exacerbate HCV infection and the associated liver damage by causing oxidative stress and promoting fibrosis, thereby accelerating disease progression to cirrhosis.

Understanding Anemia and Fatigue

You may be wondering why you feel so tired and cannot do many of the things you want to do, or used to do. You may also be wondering if there is anything you can do to feel better, be more productive, and regain your energy. Your healthcare team may have told you that you have anemia, which may explain, in part, why you feel so tired and lack the energy necessary to perform your daily activities. Anemia and fatigue can be caused by multiple myeloma itself or by the treatment for the disease.

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