Baud-rate clock recovery (CR) is gradually gaining popularity in modern serial data transmission systems since these CR techniques do not require edge-samples for extracting timing information. However, previous baud-rate techniques for high-speed serial links either rely on specific 4-bit patterns or uncorrelated random data. This work describes the modeling and design of analog filter front-end aided baud-rate CR schemes. Unlike other baud-rate schemes, this technique is not constrained by the properties of the input random data.
This paper is devoted to staudy the existence and the time-asymptotic of multidimensional quantum hydrodynamic equations for the electron particle density, the current density and the electrostatic potential in spatial periodic domain. The equations are formally analogous of the classical hydrodynamics but differ in the momentum equation, which is forced by an additional nonlinear dispersion term, (due to the quantum Bohm potential,) and are used in the modelling of quantum effects on semiconductors devices.
We prove the local-in-time existence of the solutions, in the case of general, nonconvex pressure-density relation and large and regular initial data. Furthermore we propose a “subsonic” type stability condition related to that one of the classical hydrodynamical equations. When this condition is satisfied, the local-in-time solutions exist globally in-time and converge time exponentially toward the corresponding steady-state. Since for this problem classical methods like, for instance, the Friedrichs theory for symmetric hyperbolic systems cannot be used, we investigate via an iterative procedure an extended system, which incorporates the one under investigation as a special case. In particular the dispersive terms appears in the form of a fourth-order wave type equation.
In this tutorial, you will learn the basic elements of boundary-scan architecture — where it came from, what problems it solves, and its implications on the design of an integrated- ircuit device. This tutorial also provides an overview of the data standards applicable to the boundary-scan architecture and an overview of the software tools available to perform boundary-scan-based tests.
The core reference is the 2001 version of the Standard:
IEEE Standard 1149.1-2001 “Test Access Port and Boundary-Scan Architecture,” available from the
IEEE, 445 Hoes Lane, PO Box 1331, Piscataway, New Jersey 08855-1331, USA.
The standard was initially created in 1990 and revised in 1993, 1994 and 2001.
For further, more recent publications on the boundary-scan architecture, see the Bibliography at the end of this tutorial.
This purpose of this guide is to provide municipal utilities in Minnesota with basic, practical information on how to implement commercial air conditioning equipment rebates. The guide explains the potential benefits of cooling rebates to the utility, and explains in detail how to assess the benefits for a particular utility, and how to design a program. It also identifies resources that can provide more detailed information and assistance.
Transporter trafficking regulators can play an important role in maintaining the transporter density necessary for effective function. I determine interactions that confine GAT1 at the membrane by investigating GAT1 lateral mobility through fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). I find that the mobility of GAT1 can be increased by depolymerizing actin or by blocking the GAT1 PDZ interacting domain. I also identify ezrin as the GAT1 adaptor to actin. Through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), the distance between GAT1-YFP and Ezrin-CFP is calculated as 64--68 Å, and it can be significantly increased by disrupting the actin cytoskeleton. Altogether, my data reveals that actin confines GAT1 to the plasma membrane via ezrin, an interaction mediated through the GAT1-PDZ interaction domain.
Digital signal processing (DSP) techniques have played an important role in channel equalization and estimation in communication systems. While channel equalization and estimation are usually done by pilot-assisted methods in most systems, algorithms for blind channel estimation have also been largely studied due to high bandwidth efficiency. However, up to date, most blind methods possess disadvantages such as slow convergence speed, high complexity, poor performance, etc., compared to pilot-assisted methods. These drawbacks have made many consider blind methods as inapplicable in modern communication systems which feature fast-varying channels.
High-latitude climate change will have an impact on the carbon and water cycles in northern ecosystems. Stable isotopes in these systems can serve as indicators of changes and feedbacks. Monitoring the stable isotopic composition of Arctic river discharge provides a means to investigate integrated basin-scale hydrologic changes in remote northern regions. I measured water d18O and dD from the Kolyma River in Siberia and local precipitation to partition the river flow into 60% snow and 40% rain inputs.
A holographic dielectric grating is a diffraction grating comprised of a periodic variation of the refractive index of a medium, and is produced by the interference pattern of two monochromatic waves. Emphasis is placed upon photographic emulsion as the medium for recording the pattern, but the treatment is general and includes any material that can have an internal modulation of the refractive index. Three topics are treated: the effective dielectric constant of the emulsion, the diffraction of light by dielectric gratings, and the techniques for producing gratings with high efficiency and good resolution.
The theory of the condenser motor is the operation of a poly-phase motor on a single-phase source. If we consider the current in one phase of a two-phase motor the IR drop is in phase with the current I and the reactance drop is at right angles to it. The voltage OB across the phase is the vector sum of these two.
Ultra-high-Q (UHQ) silica microspheres have found research applications in diverse fields ranging from telecommunications to nonlinear optics to biological and chemical sensing. However, despite having quality factors greater than 108, the silica microsphere has not moved to an industrial setting because of several major drawbacks. The most hindering is the manual fabrication technique used that makes tight process control difficult and integration with other optical or electrical components impossible.
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