Almost all scenarios for the development of air traffic show that a further growth of transport capacity can be anticipated in the future. Solutions to handle the increased traffic are constrained by economical and environmental issues which may lead to quite different or even completely new aircraft configurations. In the past, it was tried to minimize the environmental impact after the configuration had already been developed mainly based on cost and performance requirements. In the future, environmental issues will have a stronger influence at the component level, but also on the arrangement of the aircraft components and thus on the configurations. Increased transport capacity can be provided by:
1. increasing the number of aircraft,
2. reducing the turn around time at the airport and separation between flights,
3. enlarging the aircraft capacity, and
4. increasing the cruise speed of aircraft.