While the stated ultimate goal of education is academic achievement, attainment of that goal remains elusive. Many educators are making choices that increase academic rigor, sometimes at the expense of programs that might be more effective in meeting the achievement goal. Correlations between factors that possibly relate to academic achievement, such as emotional intelligence, could at least initiate a discussion about attaining the objective of substantial academic achievement through avenues other than repeated classes of the subject matter.
Performance is understood as achievement of the organization in relation with its set goals. It includes outcomes achieved, or accomplished through contribution of individuals or teams to the organization‘s strategic goals. The term performance encompasses economic as well as behavioural outcomes. Brumbach views performance more comprehensively by encompassing both behaviors and results. He is of the view that behaviors as ?outcomes in their own right‘, which ?can be judged apart from results‘. Performance is an impact. The roles of any manage can be seen in three parts: Being, Doing and Relating.
Since the Asian and the Russian crisis, Latin America has struggled to recover its long term productivity growth. Recent evidence suggests that Asian emerging economies have been more successful in recovering from the crisis (Calderon and Fuentes, 2006). Only in the last few years, mainly due to the high terms of trade, Latin American economies have been growing at a faster pace.
Chile has not escaped to this trend. After being a successful example of growth over 1986-1997 (TFP grew at 3%), the aggregate productivity growth rate has dramatically declined over the last 10 years (TFP grew at 0.4%) (Figure 1.1). The profession has not come out with an undisputable answer to explain this decline. Most of studies regarding total factor productivity have emphasized the macroeconomic environment and economic reforms to explain aggregate productivity growth. Chile has been an example of good macroeconomic management today and in the recent past (Fuentes and Mies, 2005). However, casual evidence suggests that there are some micro issues where the country is showing deficiencies (World Economic Forum, 2008). Then, the answer to this puzzle should be searched on the micro side.
Over the past decade, emotional intelligence has been the subject of much debate regarding its conceptual definition, its empirical relationship to personality and traditional cognitive abilities, and how best to measure the construct. Salovey and Mayer (1990) initially proposed a definition of emotional intelligence as a set of skills and abilities contributing to the appraisal of emotions, the regulation of emotions, and the use of emotions in reasoning. Since then, other researchers have proposed alternative theories (Bar-On, 1997; Epstein & Meier, 1989; Goleman, 1995, 1998). While some of the differences in these theories may appear due to differences in the level of focus (Epstein, 1998; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002), many of the conceptual differences are due to differences in the scope of the definition.
Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso (2000) have asserted that there are two basic classes of emotional intelligence models – mixed models and ability models. Models that incorporate aspects of both the original definition of emotional intelligence and aspects of personality are classified as mixed models of emotional intelligence. Models that propose a pure ability definition of emotional intelligence are considered ability models.
How universal are the emotions that men and women from a variety of cultural and ethnic groups experience and express in their close love relationships? in this study, 144 men and 307 women of Caucasian, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian, and Japanese ancestry were asked about their ideologies as to how people ought to deal with strong emotions in their close relationships, how often they themselves feU a variety of emotions, and how they dealt with such feelings. Finally, they were asked how satisfied they were with their close relationships.
Men and women, regardles of ethnic group, seemed to possess different emotional ideologies. Women tended to favor direct expression of emotion; men favored emotional management. Men and women experienced much the same emotions in their relationships, but men were more muted in their expression of feelings. There was no evidence that existing differences had an impact on men and women's relationship satisfaction, however.
The theory of rational efficient markets dominated financial economics three decades ago. In recent years, however, psychology-inspired behavioral finance has overshadowed it. Both critics and proponents of the use of psychology in economics and finance base their positions on the premise that psychology primarily deals with human fallibility, systematic mistakes and biased judgment (Kahneman, Slovic and Tversky, 1982). The association of psychology with pathology seems to imply that normative behavioral economics and the design of successful institutions must focus on a benevolent paternalism aimed at saving individuals from themselves. This paper, in contrast, discusses how simple psychological processes frequently, but not always, function well in their respective environments. Using the concept of ecological rationality and the key findings of psychology in economics, three lessons for designing successful institutions are proposed.
Three decades ago, financial economics was dominated by efficient market theory. One leading finance researcher claimed that the efficiency of financial markets was the best established fact in economics (Jensen, 1978). Today, the most influential intellectual movement in financial economics is behavioral finance, the application of psychological theory and its empirical findings from laboratory experiments with human subjects to economic and financial decision making.
This study explores the factors that elicit and sustain the optimal academic experience. Flow operationalizes this experience and is studied in relation to motivation. More self-determined types of motivation are expected to have higher correlations with the flow experience, with autonomy acting as a moderator. Results are theoretically underpinned by self-determination theory and cognitive evaluation theory. Congruent with engagement research this study has implications for successful educational outcomes such as learning, achievement, continued motivation, commitment, performance, increased skills and maximal chances for school completion. Flow has often been studied in special populations such as dancers, athletes and scientists. This study investigates how flow is experienced and supported in the higher education environment.
“How optimism and hope affect life, what constitutes wisdom, and how talent and creativity come to fruition (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000, p. 5),” are just a few of the questions that Positive Psychology tries to answer. Studying these positive individual traits goes toward building a strength-based model of flourishing. Human strengths are important for an individual to thrive, but so are the ways in which they are supported. Positive Psychology also extends to studying the optimal working environment, communities and education. Besides individual traits, valued subjective experiences are also of interest (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). Engagement and flow are subjective experiences which outline academic strengths in the educational domain.
To help answer the question “What are the skills that information professionals must have to work with e?books, electronic records, and other digital materials?,” the National Archives and Records Administration, the Arizona State Library and Archives, and the Society of American Archivists hosted “New Skills for a Digital Era.” This colloquium brought together individuals with different perspectives on the question, including information professionals, educators, managers, and technologists. All were expected to have practical experience working with digital publications and records.
Discussion sessions were at the heart of the colloquium. Each session began with a presentation of one or two case studies that related to specific functions and illustrated practical skills information professionals need to work with born?digital and digitized materials, rather than merely theoretical knowledge. The colloquium sought to identify specific skills that information professionals working with digital materials needed to do their jobs. These skills that go beyond those of the consumer of records, but it seems unreasonable to expect information professionals to have the skills of a professional programmer or systems administrator.
Bringing about the necessary changes and adjusting work systems represent a major part of the work of the Director of a Self-Sufficient School. Thinking about how change causes disruption in an organization can be quite wearisome. Faced with this challenge, many ignore problems rather than deal with the situation. However, those that have been in organizations going through a phase of change know better. The bottom line is that changes cause disruption, and disruption in turn provokes a crisis of uncertainty and insecurity in the staff which makes them seek new frontiers.
This manual has been carefully designed to guide the director of a rural school in the process of transforming the institution into a Self-Sufficient School. Great care has been taken to ensure his or her success in the process of changing the paradigm of the school while keeping staff motivated and increasing their sense of self-worth.
Cosmology is commonly thought to have entered its “precision era”, a threshold of every science. Some of the first - and essential in order to promote it to the rank of science - developments happened almost by chance, such as Hubble’s discovery of expansion, or Penzias and Wilson’s casual observation of the Cosmic Microwave Background, or CMB). Afterwards, the level of sophistication reached by the auxiliary pure sciences, like physics or mathematics, allowed room for fast and spectacular improvement. In the Sixties, after the couple of extraordinary events I mentioned, the new-born Cosmologists not only had a fantastic playground - the Universe itself - but were also supported by a well-established mathematical setting like Einstein’s theory of General Relativity and by a good knowledge of most of the required physics of fluids; also, high-energy physicists were at the same time developing the standard model of particles.
From the Hot Big Bang Cosmology to the formulation of the theory of inflation to the discovery of the CMB anisotropies, there were years that revolutioned the way people thought about the Universe. Then, after some tens of years, Cosmology has become a precision science, in the sense that the guidelines are written, and now we are cross-stitching on models, more often limited by the sensitivity of the instruments than by the cosmological community’s capacity of having better ideas. We have quite a converging view (so converging, in fact, that we call it Concordance model) of the numbers that form the Universe matter-energy content, and still we profoundly lack a theoretical interpretation of these numbers. I think that the fact that we are conceiving more and more sophisticated experiments, while at the same time the nature of a good 96% of the Universe is obscure to us, renders the present era for Cosmology more thrilling than ever. This peculiar state-of-the-art sets as a crucial challenge the search for unusual point of views, in the sense of new observables, able to resolve the present degeneracies among different parameters or give us new independent - in space or in time - constraints. We are in the intriguing era of “tricking the Universe” to force it to tell us something about itself... rather than the elegant Universe, I would call it the reluctant one.
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